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  • Traditional Dance Masks of Buddhists - Jamsran - Dshamsran

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P & C December 1998
- Face Music / Albi

- last update 03-2016

Jamsran - God of War

Dshamsran; Mongolian meaning also "brother and sister".

Dogshin ulaan sakhuis – Dshamsran - when he dances, he acts as if he cuts up the enemies and extracts their hearts. He wears a flag or banner (duulga) on his head. He has a sword with a flag and tassels in his hands or an arrow. He wears a necklace (erkhi) which is made of skulls taken from 50 people. He swore to defy and win over all of the sinful enemies and make people happy for a long time. He is a guard of religion (tshoijn sakhuis).
The reconstruction of his mask "Burkhan Jamsran" (powerful god Jamsran) from the Ikh Khuree tsam (name of this tsam ritual and name of the monastery) was made by the monk Puntsag-Osor. You can now see this mask in the Choijin Lama Temple Museum in Ulaanbaatar. It is an outstanding creature only used in the Mongolian tsam ritual. (dance ritual).

- Also the God of War belongs to the "Dreadful Gods". There is no equivalent in the Indian Pantheon, he may be a pre-Buddhist Mongolian deity. In former times he was probably offered human sacrifices. It is the task of the Jamsran to sacrifice those human beings who do not keep their vows. In the tsam performance he usually appears together with his "satellites", the knife holders.


  • - red-brownish face colour, coral-incrustrated mask (in colour symbolism red stands for power and force everything has to submit to)
  • - head of a "Dreadful God"
  • - crown made from skulls, with five jags, often in connection with little flags on each skull
  • - Third Eye of Wisdom in the middle of the forehead
  • - open mouth with ripper teeth
  • - often golden coat of mail over the costume

- In one hand he holds a sword, and in the other hand he holds a human heart or a precious stone which has the power to fulfill wishes.

- Very slow and forceful.

back to the Projects Dance Masks - Tsam Masks Mongolia

P & C Face Music - Ulaanbaatar, September / October 1999 - Albi
English translation: Hermelinde Steiner